Center Fellows and Affiliates
Many people have made significant contributions to the success of the Center for Practical Bioethics throughout its history. Among them are former staff members who have exceeded expectations making extraordinary contributions both personally and professionally.
We refer to those individuals as Center Fellow. The designation confirms their impact on the organization and honors their commitment, sacrifice, and talents to pursue the Center’s vision of advancing the health and dignity of all persons through ethical discourse and action.
In addition, the Center continually relies on the skills and abilities of devoted leaders from diverse areas within and beyond the field of bioethics to advance our work. These Center Affiliates enhance the Center’s unique role of demonstrating the practical impact of bioethics in the daily lives of all Americans. Affiliates contribute immeasurably to the Center’s ability to listen actively, think critically and act wisely in both the private and public spheres of our lives.
Many people have made significant contributions to the success of the Center for Practical Bioethics. Some, though, have gone beyond the call, making extraordinary efforts to advance the Center’s mission to raise and respond to ethical issues in health and healthcare.
For those individuals we have conferred a special designation - Center Fellow. The designation honors each person for their contributions to the Center and positions each to continue their work with the organization.
“Each of these individuals has worked tirelessly to advance the mission and vision of the Center,” says John Carney, president and CEO of the Center. “They are proven professionals and scholars with an undeniable commitment to the Center.”
Erika Blacksher, PhD
Erika Blacksher, PhD, is an assistant professor in the Department of Bioethics and Humanities at the University of Washington, Seattle. Her research examines the ethical and policy implications of social determinants of and inequalities in health, particularly as they relate to U.S. health system reform, the ethics of health promotion, theories of social justice, and participatory and deliberative approaches to advance health equity. She also has created and contributed to innovative programs that engage diverse audiences (from lay citizens to state legislators) in moral dialogue about contentious healthy policy issues.
She teaches courses that examine ethical issues raised by the social gradient in health and social and health policies to close the health gap. Her training and experience include receiving a PhD and MA (bioethics) from the University of Virginia in Charlottesville, two years as a Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Health and Society Scholar at Columbia University in New York City, three years as a research scholar for public health ethics and policy at The Hastings Center in Garrison, New York, and five years at The Center for Practical Bioethics, a community-based bioethics center in Kansas City, Mo. Blacksher’s undergraduate degrees are in philosophy and in journalism from the University of Kansas in Lawrence.
Mark Hoffman, Ph.D. - Chief Research Information Officer
Dr. Hoffman serves as the Chief Research Information officer for Children’s Mercy Hospital (CMH) and the Children’s Research Institute. Dr. Hoffman has delivered a TED talk on the “Envirome” and won the iThermometer category in the Google wearable devices in healthcare challenge in 2015. He is an inventor on 19 issued patents and a member of the American Academy of Inventors. He is the PI on a CDC funded data warehouse project. Prior to CMH, he served as VP for Research and Genomics at Cerner, where he led initiatives in public health and “big data”. Twitter: @markhoffmankc Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Gary Pettett, MD
When it comes to research involving human subjects, Gary Pettett, MD, believes we need more “principled investigators” than “principal investigators.”
Dr. Pettett draws that conclusion from more than twenty years of experience in research bioethics. He was formerly the chair of the Pediatric Institutional Review Board at Children’s Mercy Hospital in Kansas City, Missouri, and was a member of its Research Council.
Dr. Pettett first became associated with the Center in the late 1990s when the Center began forming a consortium of institutional review boards. Dr. Pettett and Don Reynolds, a program associate at the Center, formed the Kansas City IRB Consortium to share best practices, produce common educational programs for all IRB members, and discuss IRB issues and concerns in a confidential manner.
The concept of the Center for Practical Bioethics is unique,” says Dr. Pettett. “With all the challenges in clinical research these days, it is imperative for professionals to find a neutral ground to discuss these issues. The Center plays that role.”
As a Fellow at the Center, Dr. Pettett says he will continue pursuing areas of interest, including the ethical dimensions of human subject research and professionalism in medicine.
The two areas are closely linked,” Dr. Pettett says. “When the public loses confidence in the moral character of medicine and research, government responds with regulatory mandates. And that inserts new challenges into the physician/patient relationship.”
Dr. Pettett believes the public views medicine skeptically these days because physicians have lost their professional anchor. “We need to speak in the patient’s best interest and less about our own welfare,” he says. “We need to become an advocate for our patients.”
Robert Potter, MD, PhD
Some people never really retire. They just keep moving to the next challenge.
Such is the case with Dr. Robert Potter.
He spent ten years at the Center for Practical Bioethics advancing ethics in the medical profession. That was after receiving a doctorate in religion and psychology with an emphasis in ethics from the University of Chicago Divinity School. And that was after retiring from a 30-year internal medicine and geriatrics practice in Kansas City, Kansas.
He was also associate clinical professor of medicine for Kansas University School of Medicine during his entire career.
Today, Dr. Potter is the Director of the Interprofessional Ethics Fellowship at the Center for Ethics in Healthcare at Oregon Health Sciences University. “This position allows me to continue what I always wanted to do—raise the ethical excellence of health care professionals,” Dr. Potter says. “I am now remembering so much of what the Center for Practical Bioethics taught me in the formative past.”
A modest statement, to be sure, considering Dr. Potter’s significant contributions to the Center for Practical Bioethics. Those contributions began in the early 1990s as Dr. Potter observed the growing influence of the Center through the work of Myra Christopher and Dr. Bill Bartholome.
"The Center was starting the discussion on medical ethics in a very important way, certainly raising the bar on ethics and professionalism,” Dr. Potter says. Dr. Potter believes the Center practices “bipolar bioethics,” allowing for individuals and organizations with disparate viewpoints to find a safe place to identify common ground.
That capacity, Dr. Potter says, created a national presence for the Center and its work. “Our project with the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (Community State Partnerships to Improve End-of-Life Care) really placed the Center in the national spotlight,” he says. “Kansas City became a practical lab to try things before going national. Bioethics was not just an abstract concept anymore.”
As for his future as a Fellow of the Center for Practical Bioethics, Dr. Potter sees much work to be done on the social justice issue of the day – providing medical care for all at an affordable price.
"It’s a compelling call that I sense is being heard by my medical students in Oregon,” he says. “If we can’t deal with that, then bioethic's ability to guide medicine is greatly diminished.”
Don Reynolds, J.D.
From mortgage banker to advocate for the disabled. That’s not a career path many take. For Don Reynolds, it’s a path that has led to his designation as a Fellow at the Center for Practical Bioethics.
Reynolds joined the Center as a member in the summer of 1985.You could say he didn’t have much choice. His sister, Mary Beth Blake, is a co-founder of the organization. “Mary Beth was central to my initial involvement with the Center,” Reynolds says, “and joining was my symbolic support of her effort.”
Fortunately, his contributions over the past two decades have been much more than symbolic. Reynolds’ initial endeavor with the Center was a joint project with the Jackson County Public Administrator to solicit expressions of healthcare preferences from people who the Public Administrator served as guardian. “The project was intended to address the limitations that the Missouri Supreme Court's decision in the Nancy Cruzan case placed on a guardian's authority to make end-of-life healthcare decisions for wards,” says Reynolds.
The project established a relationship with the University of Missouri – Kansas City’s Institute for Human Development to address healthcare decision-making by people with developmental disabilities. The thread of this work led to Reynold’s involvement in Last Passages - a national project that addressed end-of-life healthcare decision-making by and for people with disabilities.
Since that beginning, Reynolds has been a committed advocate of long-term care ethics and to others that he refers to as “lesser situated.” Reynolds is credited with developing a person-centered methodology for involving people with disabilities in their healthcare, developing a mediation model for long-term care ethics case consultations, and using tele-ethics technology to conduct such case consultations.
He also wrote the first draft of what became one of the Center’s signature tools for individuals and their families to make practical preparations for end-of-life decisions – the Caring Conversations® workbook. As a Center Fellow, Reynolds maintains his ties to the Center, serving as a resource for the Center to continue addressing the ethics issues that confront people with disabilities.
George Flanagan, DMin, MA
Dr. George Flanagan served for 20 years as Chaplain and clinical ethics consultant and ethics committee member/chair at the Kansas City VA Medical Center. He was the facility’s first Integrated Ethics Program Officer. He also served as a member of the Institutional Review Board of the Midwest Biomedical Research Foundation based at KCVA. In addition to frequent clinical ethics consultation, he provided periodic healthcare ethics education to all professional staff.
After retirement from KCVA in 2009, Dr. Flanagan joined the staff of the Center for Practical Bioethics as Program Associate for Clinical and Organizational Ethics. He has conducted workshops and provided consultation to hospital ethics committees throughout the Midwest, been a presenter in healthcare ethics for professional associations, and has served on the coordinating committee for National Healthcare Decisions Day.
Since 2011, he has assisted the Center as a volunteer, and now as a Fellow, while serving in specialized ministry to churches as an ordained minister of the Christian Church (Disciples of Christ). He continues to consult with hospital ethics committees in the Kansas City area. He is adjunct faculty in healthcare ethics at Rockhurst University and Kansas City University of Medicine and Biosciences. As a Board Certified Chaplain (Retired), he continues to serve on the regional certification committee for Association of Professional Chaplains. He received the B.A. in Communication from William Jewell College; the M.A. in Speech Communication from University of Central Missouri; the M.Div. and the D.Min. degrees from Midwestern Baptist Theological Seminary.
Kathy Greenlee, JD
Kathy began her work with the Center in November 2016 with a focus on issues that impact older adults and people with disabilities. In September 2018 she transitioned from her staff position as Vice President of Health Policy to her current role as Senior Health Policy Advisor upon establishment of Greenlee Global, her consulting company. Her interests in improving transitions of care by creating systems that build relationships between healthcare providers and community-based organizations will continue. She is a passionate advocate on issues relating to elder abuse and seeks to provide local and national leadership in the areas of elder abuse prevention and response.
As Assistant Secretary for Aging in the US Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) from 2009 to 2016, Greenlee was responsible for leadership and management of the Administration on Aging and program implementation of the Older Americans Act. Greenlee led an effort to create the Administration for Community Living (ACL), an agency the administers a broad range of aging and disability programs. When she left her dual positions, ACL had a staff of more than 200 and an annual budget of $1.9 billion.
While in Washington, Greenlee provided national leadership on elder abuse by tackling issues on multiple fronts domestically and internationally. On behalf of the Secretary of Health and Human Services, she chaired the federal Elder Justice Coordinating Committee. She also created the first-ever federal home for state adult protective services programs and created the first national data collection system. Kathy co-chaired the HHS LGBT Issues Coordinating Committee, an endeavor that resulted in comprehensive program and policy improvements on behalf of LGBT individuals.
Prior to leaving for Washington, Kathy spent 18 years in Kansas state government. She served as Secretary for Aging for Governor Kathleen Sebelius and she is a former Kansas State Long Term Care Ombudsman. A lawyer by training, Greenlee was also General Counsel of the Kansas Insurance Department and an Assistant Attorney General for Attorney General Bob Stephan.
Greenlee has an undergraduate degree in business administration and a law degree from the University of Kansas. She is a native Kansan and a proud Jayhawk. Among her many interests and activities, international travel makes her happiest of all.
Maria Fox DNP, MSN, BSN, APRN-CNS, ACPHN, CCRN
Clinical Ethics Affiliate
Dr. Maria Fox is a Clinical Ethics Affiliate for the Center for Practical Bioethics, working as an Advanced Practice Nurse in Palliative Care at the University of Kansas Hospital. She serves there on the Hospital Ethics Committee and Consultation Service, assisting her Center colleague, Dr. Terry Rosell, in the fulfillment of contractual responsibilities related to clinical ethics education, policy and consultation. Dr. Fox also serves with Center colleagues in adjunctive bioethics education of students at Kansas City University of Medicine and Biosciences.
Maria was born in Peru and immigrated to the USA with her family at a very young age. She grew up in Chicago and around the other side of the "Big Lake" in the southwest part of Michigan. Dr. Fox earned both a bachelor's and master's degree in nursing from the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor, and just recently completed a doctoral degree in nursing practice at the University of Kansas.
Throughout Maria's early nursing career, which was primarily in intensive care units, she was on the front line to witness wonderful, innovative and life-saving interventions. At the same time, she recognized that the dying process can be prolonged with those very same interventions. Maria obtained a Certificate in Bioethics from Rush University in 2000, and subsequently has been involved on Ethics committees in several hospitals while in a nursing role.
Maria's passion is to support front-line nurses in provision of compassionate and ethical nursing care for patients and their families, especially those patients who are critically ill or at high risk for dying.